A Activity diagram used in UML 6/9 and SysML B Bachman diagram Booch used in software engineering Block diagram Block Definition Diagram BDD used in SysML C Carroll diagram Cartogram Catalytic cycle Chemical equation Curly arrow diagram Category theory diagrams Cause-and-effect diagram Chord diagram Circuit diagram Class diagram from UML 1/9 Collaboration diagram from UML 2.0 Communication diagram from UML 2.0 Commutative diagram Comparison diagram Component diagram from UML 3/9 Composite structure diagram from UML 2.0 Concept map Constellation diagram Context diagram Control flow diagram Contour diagram Cordier diagram Cross functional flowchart D Data model diagram Data flow diagram Data structure diagram Dendrogram Dependency diagram Deployment diagram from UML 9/9 Dot and cross diagram Double bubble map used in education Drakon-chart E Entity-Relationship diagram ERD Event-driven process chain Euler diagram Eye diagram a diagram of a received telecommunications signal Express-G Extended Functional Flow Block Diagram EFFBD F Family tree Feynman diagram Flow chart Flow process chart Flow diagram Fusion diagram Free body diagram G Gantt chart shows the timing of tasks or activities used in project management Grotrian diagram Goodman diagram shows the fatigue data example: for a wind turbine blades H Hasse diagram HIPO diagram I Internal Block Diagram IBD used in SysML IDEF0 IDEF1 entity relations Interaction overview diagram from UML Ishikawa diagram J Jackson diagram K Karnaugh map Kinematic diagram L Ladder diagram Line of balance Link grammar diagram M Martin ERD Message Sequence Chart Mind map used for learning, brainstorming, memory, visual thinking and problem solving Minkowski spacetime diagram Molecular orbital diagram N N2 Nassi Shneiderman diagram or structogram a representation for structured programming Nomogram Network diagram O Object diagram from UML 2/9 Organigram Onion diagram also known as "stacked Venn diagram" P Package diagram from UML 4/9 and SysML Parametric diagram from SysML PERT Petri net shows the structure of a distributed system as a directed bipartite graph with annotations Phylogenetic tree - represents a phylogeny evolutionary relationships among groups of organisms Piping and instrumentation diagram P&ID Phase diagram used to present solid/liquid/gas information Plant Diagram Pressure volume diagram used to analyse engines Pourbaix diagram Process flow diagram or PFD used in chemical engineering Program structure diagram R Radar chart Radial Diagram Requirement Diagram Used in SysML Rich Picture R-diagram Routing diagram S Sankey diagram represents material, energy or cost flows with quantity proportional arrows in a process network. Sentence diagram represents the grammatical structure of a natural language sentence. Sequence diagram from UML 8/9 and SysML SDL/GR diagram Specification and Description Language. SDL is a formal language used in computer science. Smith chart Spider chart Spray diagram SSADM Structured Systems Analysis and Design Methodology used in software engineering Star chart/Celestial sphere State diagram are used for state machines in software engineering from UML 7/9 Swim lane Syntax diagram used in software engineering to represent a context-free grammar Systems Biology Graphical Notation a graphical notation used in diagrams of biochemical and cellular processes studied in Systems biology System context diagram System structure Systematic layout planning T Timing Diagram: Digital Timing Diagram Timing Diagram: UML 2.0 TQM Diagram Treemap U UML diagram Unified Modeling Language used in software engineering Use case diagram from UML 5/9 and SysML V Value Stream Mapping Venn diagram Voronoi diagram W Warnier-Orr Williot diagram Y Yourdon-Coad see Edward Yourdon, used in software engineering
Spinel, (Mg,Fe)(Al,Cr) 2 O 4, is common in peridotite in the uppermost Earth's mantle, between approximately 20 km to approximately 120 km, possibly to lower depths depending on the chromium content. At significantly shallower depths, above the Moho , calcic plagioclase is the more stable aluminous mineral in peridotite while garnet is the stable phase deeper in the mantle below the spinel stability region.
The investigated spinel phases are metastable, and they are subject to change into rock salt phases at higher temperatures. The phases have been characterized as cathodes in lithium ion cells. The study may serve as a strategic model to access other metastable phases by low temperature synthesis approaches.
Though commonly attributed as oxygen and lithium deficient spinel, our results indicate the absence of any significant oxygen deficiency. Below 400 °C spinel appears to be stable only as Li4Mn5O12 and LiMn1.75O4. A phase diagram of the second kind is presented for the Li−Mn−O system (Figure 1).
The formed spinel like phases are metastable and cannot be accessed by a conventional high temperature solid state method. The layered to spinel transformation mechanism has been studied by the Rietveld refinement of in situ neutron diffraction as a function of temperature (25–300 °C).
The spinel MnV (2)O (4) is a two sublattice ferrimagnet, with site A occupied by the Mn (2 ) ion and site B by the V (3 ) ion. The magnon of the system, the transversal fluctuation of the total magnetization, is a complicated mixture of the sublattice A and B transversal magnetic fluctuations.
The formation of spinel phase is well known in binary oxide systems of alumina and divalent oxides (M=Mg or transition metals). The stoichiometric spinel phase has the formula MAl 2O 4 , but non stoichiometric spinels are also well known due to their extended solubility of Al 2O 3 , , .
Ternary Phase Diagrams Click on an image or the link in the caption, and a PDF file of the diagram will download to your computer. Some of the PDF files are animations they contain more than one page that can be shown in sequence to see changes as temperature or some other variable changes.
An experimental phase diagram for nanoscale dimensions was constructed for BeAl 2 O 4 –MgAl 2 O 4 solid solutions in which polymorphs can be identified as a function of crystallite size (or temperature) and composition. Spinel and chrysoberyl are the main phases present in the diagram.
The Phase Equilibrium Diagram is the road map to the use of two (or more) metals. As the result, there have been numerous efforts to compile the existing (reported) Phase Equilibriums in a book form or electronic form. On the other hand, there is an effort also to theoretically calculate the Phase Diagrams (Society of CALPHAD).
Phase diagrams. A phase diagram lets you work out exactly what phases are present at any given temperature and pressure. In the cases we'll be looking at on this page, the phases will simply be the solid, liquid or vapour (gas) states of a pure substance. This is the phase diagram for a typical pure substance.